ReFINE is responsible for more than 20 research projects across multiple countries. Most projects are directly funded by ReFINE, with the aim of producing peer-reviewed research on a range of environmental, social, and health related issues.
Well Integrity & Pollution
Well Integrity: Review, Durham University, UK - Completed
A review of published literature on well integrity, examining rates of barrier and integrity failure in different locations around the world.
Well Integrity: Onshore Monitoring, Durham University, UK - Completed
Methane emissions are measured at a sample of 100 abandoned onshore oil and gas wells in the UK. Modelling is used to estimate the leakage rate of abandoned wells.
Radioactive Material, Durham University, UK - Completed
An estimation of the levels of radioativity in the environment that would result from shale gas developmnet, compared with other sources of radiactivity.
Well Integrity: Groundwater, Stanford University, USA
The effect of well integrity failure on groundwater quality is examined in Pennsylvania and California using field measurements and modelling.
Fugitive Emissions: Faults, Durham University, UK
Major faults in potential shale gas regions are surveyed for methane emissions to determine whether they can act as conduits for pollutants to travel to the atmosphere from deep underground.
Fugitive Emissions: Pipelines and Infrastructure, Durham University, UK
Pipelines and active well pads are surveyed across the UK to determine a pre-shale gas background level of methane emissions, and to contribute towards estimating the net impact of shale gas in terms of greenhouse gas emissions.
Biocides and Groundwater, Durham University
Biocides used in the fracking process are reviewed and modelling is carried out to assess their potential to cause environmental pollution.
Induced Seismicity: Review, Durham University, UK - Completed
A review of published literature on induced seismicity, cataloguing all incidences and causes of man-made earthqakes since 1927.
Induced Seismicity in the UK, Durham University, UK - Completed
Earthquake records are examined to determine the causes of UK earthquakes since the 1970s in order to establish a baseline rate of man-made earthquakes.
How Far From a Fault is it Safe to Frack, Keele University, UK
Modelling of hydraulic fractures will be used to determine how far from a fault it would be safe to frack without risk of triggering induced seismicity.
Framing Fracking, Durham University, UK - Completed
An examination of the way in which policy making institutions engage with the public about fracking, and what could be done to improve the dialogue.
Public Perception, Cambridge University, UK
Focus groups across the UK and Europe will be used to analyse public attitudes towards fracking.
Liability, Newcastle University, UK
A study of the varying regulatory practices in the USA and UK and an examination of legal liability in the event of environmental damage related to fracking.
Fractures & Subsidence
Hydraulic Fracture Extent, Durham University, UK - Completed
A review of published literature on hydraulic fracture height estimates the maximum vertical extent of man-made fractures.
Properties of Shales, Durham University, UK
The mechanical properties of shales will be reviewed in order to build a basis on which to model potential subsidence from shale gas operations.
Faults and Fractures in Shales, Strathclyde University, UK
A review of published literature will be combined with fieldwork data to understand the behaviour of faults and fractures in shales in terms of fluid migration and fault reactivation.
Health Review, Newcastle University, UK
A review of the pathways by which potentially toxic substances may come into contact with humans, and the potential consequences to health if this were to occur.
Traffic & Infrastructure
Traffic Modelling, Newcastle University, UK - Completed
A model is developed to predict the local effects of traffic associated with fracking in terms of air quality, noise, number of vehicles etc.
Extension to Traffic Modelling, Newcastle University, UK
Work will be done to expand and refine the Traffic Impact Model developed as part of previously published ReFINE work on traffic.
"Affiliated" projects are not directly funded by ReFINE, but are linked with the consortium in terms of research staff and project scope. For example, student PhD projects supervised by ReFINE research staff.
Well Pad Footprint (PhD), Durham University, UK
An Investigation of the impact of well pad infrastructure, with regard to public safety and environmental footprint.
Contaminant Pathways (PhD), Durham University, UK
Researching the potential for frack-fluids at depth to migrate and contaminate shallow aquifers.
Fracking Fluid Chemistry (PhD), Durham University, UK
Continuing planned ReFINE research examining the chemical composition of flowback water, examining reactions that occur between frack fluids and rocks at depth.